Eth Zürich, So Könnte Der Mond Entstanden Sein – According to the theory, the Moon was formed when Earth collided with another celestial body called Thea. But where did it come from?
“Thea is a small planet that formed close to Earth,” concluded ETH Professor Maria Schönbuchler based on a very precise analysis of lunar samples.
Eth Zürich, So Könnte Der Mond Entstanden Sein
The Moon formed when the Earth collided with a smaller neighboring planet about 4.5 billion years ago. (Graphic: NASA)
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Maria Schönbachler and her team at ETH Zurich’s Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology are measuring the isotopic composition, which is the ratio of different types of atoms of an element. It can be used to infer the formation of the Solar System, including the planets that formed from a disk of dust 4.5 billion years ago. Researchers are particularly interested in the elements zirconium (Zr), titanium (Ti) and chromium (Cr). Because dust does not have the same isotopic composition of these elements everywhere, for example, according to the results of very precise measurements made at ETH Zurich over the last ten years. “These elements have so-called nucleosynthetic anomalies, which can be thought of as salt and pepper in food,” explains Maria Schönbüchler, project manager at the National Competition Center for Planetary Research.
Each celestial body, each planet, has characteristics of nucleosynthetic decomposition, that is, its own portion of salt and pepper—with one well-known exception: the Earth and the Moon have the same composition. The simplest explanation is that the Moon is made up mostly of Earth’s mantle — material ejected when Earth collided with a Mars-sized body called Thea in a giant impact. This mass effect theory can explain most of the observations. “However, one problem is that computer simulations show that the Moon consists mostly of Thia material and must therefore be salted separately with zirconium, titanium and chromium,” says Maria Schönbuchler.
How can this conflict be resolved? To answer this question, the ETH professor and his team studied the lunar rocks that NASA provided for them during the Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972. Researchers focused on zirconium isotopes. “Zirconium is relatively common in Earth and Moon samples, so it can be measured easily,” explains the Planets project manager: “but a clean room laboratory is still needed to avoid contamination and a very precise mass spectrometer. Measurements are needed so we can detect anomalies. In the sixth digit, you can terminate after the comma.” The Zurich team supplemented their own measurements with new data from another study on the analysis of titanium and chromium isotopes. Based on the measurement data, the researchers finally calculated the probable isotopic composition of Theia using a computer model. They consider all known accident scenarios as possible.
Entstehung Des Mondes
Conclusion: Theia has a very similar isotopic composition to Earth. It is a small asteroid that formed close to Earth and then collided with it. The study also found that the impact did not leave Theia with material that later fell to Earth as meteorites. According to the researchers, these findings can be extended: “Our results show that the planets are mostly made of local material and that the Earth only hosts very few bodies from the outer solar system”, summarizes Maria Schönbüchler.
After the zirconium analysis, the Zurich team is now studying the isotopic composition of the volatile element tin and the more heat-resistant titanium. It wants to determine whether these elements were lost due to evaporation in massive impacts, as the collision theory explains the lack of volatile elements like potassium on the Moon. “Such behavior will tell us a lot about the physical processes involved in the mass effects,” says the ETH professor.
Prof. Maria Schönbachler in the mass spectrometry laboratory at the Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology of ETH Zurich. (Photo: Alessandro Della Bella)
Geoforschung: Erde Ist Jünger Als Gedacht
W. Akram, M. Schonbachler: Zirconium isotopic constraints on the composition of Theia and principles during the formation of the Moon, Earth and Planetary Letters. doi:external 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.022call_made
Environmental research and geophysics groups participate in the “Waveday” event of Startbahn 29, a laboratory of science and ideas for children and young people.
A major earthquake is a once-in-a-century event with devastating effects. Luca Dal Zilio has developed a model that shows the occurrence of such events temporally and geographically and can therefore be important in risk prevention. A research group led by ETH Zurich has proposed a new theory for the formation of the Earth. It may also show how other rocky planets formed. Information from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
Gase Von Der Erde In Mondgestein Gefunden
Although the Earth has been well studied for a long time, some fundamental questions remain unanswered. One of them is about the formation of our planet, the initial stages of which are still not clear to scientists. An international research team led by ETH Zurich and the National Center of Competence in Planetary Research is now proposing new answers to these questions based on laboratory experiments and computer simulations. The researchers published the study in the journal Nature Astronomy.
“The prevailing theory in astrophysics and cosmology is that Earth is formed from so-called chondritic asteroids. These are relatively small and simple blocks of rock and metal that formed early in the solar system,” said study lead author Paolo Sosi. ,” said the study’s lead author, Paolo Sosi, professor. Experimental Planetary Science at ETH Zurich. “The problem with this theory is that none of this chondrite compound can explain the exact composition of Earth. It is weaker than expected in light and unstable elements like hydrogen and helium.”
Various hypotheses have been developed over the years to explain this difference. For example, it is believed that the collision of the objects that later formed the Earth produced intense heat. As a result, the light elements evaporated, leaving a planet with the composition of Earth today.
Wie Unsere Planeten Entstanden Sind — Nccr Planets
However, if the isotopic composition of different elements on Earth is measured, these theories become unfounded, Saucy is convinced: “Isotopes of chemical elements all have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. -isotopes with different numbers are lighter and therefore easier to escape. If the heating-evaporation theory is correct, these light isotopes would be found on Earth today less often than in the original chondrites. But this is what the isotope measurements do not show.”
So the team around SOS found another solution. “The dynamical model we use to simulate planet formation shows that planets in our solar system form slowly. Initially, small grains gather more material through their own gravity to form kilometer-sized ones over time. have grown into planets,” explained Soci. Like chondrites, planetesimals are small pieces of rock and metal. But unlike chondrites, it is heated enough to separate into a metallic core and rocky mantle. “Furthermore, young suns or planets formed at different times can have very different chemical compositions around them. Now the question is: Does a random combination of different planets actually have such a composition?” Soci added. May lead to what is consistent with the composition of the earth?
To find out, the team ran simulations of thousands of asteroids colliding with each other in the early solar system. The models were designed in such a way that celestial objects were created over time that corresponded to the four stone planets Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Simulations now show that the amalgamation of many different planets may indeed have formed the effective composition of Earth. Furthermore, the actual composition of the Earth is the most likely statistical result of this simulation.
Giant Impact: Edelgas Fund Zeigt, Wie Der Mond Entstanden Sein Könnte
“Even though we had our doubts, this result was very important to us,” recalls Soci. “We now not only have a mechanism that better explains the formation of Earth, but also the formation of other rocky planets,” the researcher said. This method can be used, for example, to predict how Mercury’s composition differs from that of other rocky planets. Or how rocky exoplanets can form from other stars.
“Our study shows how important it is to consider both dynamics and chemistry if you want to understand planet formation,” Soucy said. “I hope our findings lead to closer collaboration between researchers in these two fields.” will do.”
Chaotic start of solar system Planet fell not far from star Non-biological origin of Martian organic matter in Amazon rainforest: New insights from satellite data analysis There are various theories about the formation of the Moon, but this is the most It is more likely that Earth’s satellites formed after the collision of a massive celestial body. Now researchers have found more evidence for this theory. How did the moon form – millions of years ago? To date, this question has not been fully resolved. So some think the Moon may have been “broken off” from the proto-Earth (“fission theory”), others think the Moon formed elsewhere and was “captured” by the Earth, forming the composite. has also been brought into play.
Einschlag Ließ Mars Einst Zur Hälfte Schmelzen
“Thean” “Giant Impact” One theory is a clear favorite, the giant impact theory. Here, a Mars-sized planet (sometimes called “Theia”) is believed to have collided with the ancient Earth. Debris (a mixture of molten rock and hot gas) from these collisions first formed the disk and then the Moon.
Geochemists and petrologists from ETH Zurich have now published a study in the journal Science Advances in which they found that the moon contains helium.
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